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-- Gradually peace conferences organized by private citizens and voluntary organizations gave way to official peace conferencess organized by governments and attended by accredited diplomats.The First Geneva Convention was signed in 1864, the first international organization (the Permanent Court of Arbitration) was created in 1899, the League of Nations resulted from the Treaty of Versailles in 1920, and the United Nations replaced the League in 1945.Most of the information presented below was obtained from the World Wide Web and is therefore incomplete, and many conferences have undoubtedly been omitted altogether.Since this is a website devoted to peace monuments, an extra effort was made to identify the halls in which the conferences took place and any plaques, museums, and other monuments which have been constructed to preserve the memory of these historic peace conferences.After 14 June 1814 - Vase of Siberian Jasper, Merton College, Oxford University, Oxford (England).Danziger's article also depicts a "vase of Siberian jasper sent to Merton College by Tsar Alexander I [1777-1825] & his sister Ekaterina Pavlovna [1788-1819] in thanks after lodging there [during the peace celebration] on the night of 14 June 1814." (This is similar to the vase [qv] given by Russia to the Peace Palace in The Hague 100 years later.) 1814-1854, 1856 - Stoodley Pike Monument, West Yorkshire (England).

-- Aside from some of the halls in which peace conference took place (and three museums in Switzerland), very few monuments were created to perputuate the memory of peace conferences.Differences of opinion soon emerged, however, between those who believed in all-out pacifism and those who did not reject defensive warfare.The ethical pacifism of these first societies was later strengthened by ideas emanating from France which saw international law as an alternative to wars and as a way to solve international conflicts." -- From Santi (1991) & Andr Durand (1996).-- Peace conferences nevertheless created a general appreciation of international cooperation, the principle of international arbitration was established, and some specific organizations were created, e.g.

the Red Cross in 1864 and the International Olympic Committee in 1894.This is perhaps due to the fact that peace conferences, as a whole, did not live up to their own aspirations.See the following on-line sources of information: "Peace Congress," Wikipedia article."Conference Tables in History" from Stoneline Designs Conference Table Blog. (1931), "The History of Peace: A Short Account of the Organized Movements for International Peace," G. Click here for monuments related to peace treaties. May 22, 1787 - Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, London (England).